目的 调研八年制医学生甲状腺癌知识以及甲状腺自我检查方式的掌握情况，为临床前教育和临床教学提供指导。 方法 以北京协和医学院八年制医学生为调研对象，其中三、四年级学生为临床前阶段医学生（preclinical medical students，PMS），五、六年级学生为临床阶段医学生（clinical medical students，CMS），于2021年3月以网络问卷的形式开展调研。 结果 共发出337份问卷，回收274份有效问卷（PMS129份，CMS 145份）。CMS中曾进行甲状腺自我检查的比例高于PMS（55.8% vs 11.6%, P<0.001）。CMS对甲状腺癌的基本认知比PMS更加完善，包括甲状腺癌预后（97.2% vs 64.5%, P <0.001）、诊断方式（95.6% vs 33.1%, P <0.001）以及手术治疗指征（82.1% vs 58.1%, P =0.001），在甲状腺癌的风险因素方面二者认知接近。更多CMS认为甲状腺结节出现恶变的概率在5%以下（45.5% vs 6.5%, P <0.001），更多CMS认为没有症状及结节时也应进行甲状腺癌的筛查（62.1% vs 41.9%, P <0.001）。 结论 本研究表明医学院临床课程对甲状腺癌的教育是有效的，但CMS倾向于对甲状腺结节过度乐观，轻视自身检查，并且对正常人群是否应进行筛查缺乏正确的成本-效益认识。今后应注重临床前通识健康教育，并丰富临床阶段的实践内容，充分发挥医学生的社会科普效应。
Objective To investigate how medical students master knowledge about thyroid cancer (TC) and thyroid self-examination, and to provide guidance for pre-clinical education and clinical teaching. Methods Cross-sectional study in third grade to sixth grade medical students in Peking Union Medical College (PUMC) in May 2021 was conducted based on an online questionnaire. Medical students enrolled were grouped into preclinical medical students (PMS) and clinical medical students (CMS) according to their grades. Results A total of 337 questionnaires were distributed and 274 effective responses were collected with 129 from PMS and 145 from CMS. The percentage of thyroid self-examination in CMS was higher than that of PMS (55.8% vs 11.6%, P <0.001). Generally, CMS had better comprehension of TC, including prognosis (97.2% vs 64.5%, P <0.001), diagnosis (95.6% vs 33.1%, P <0.001) and surgery indications (82.1% vs 58.1%, P =0.001). There was no significant difference between PMS and CMS on the acquaintance of the risk factors. However, more CMS stated that the below 5% of thyroid nodules might turn malignant (45.5% vs 6.5%, P <0.001), and more CMS suggested that people without nodules should receive TC screening tests (62.1% vs 41.9%, P =0.001). Conclusions Medical education on TC was effective in teaching clinical knowledge, but CMS tended to be over optimistic about TC, ignored the importance of self-examination, and lacked proper awareness of cost-effectiveness in thyroid screening. Medical school should focus more on preclinical general health education and clinical practices education in the future.